Department of Pharmacology with Clinical Pharmacology

Address: Maydan Voli st. 1, 46001
Tel: (0352) 523987

Staff of the Department: 2 Professors, 3 Associate Professors, 9 Assistant Professors, 2 senior laboratory assistants

Head of the Department – Prof., MD, PhD, DSc. K.A. Posokhova.

 The Department of Pharmacology was founded in July-August 1957 and was headed by PhD, Prof. Mykola Petrovych Skakun. From 1992 to nowadays the Head of the Department is Doctor of Medicine, Prof. K.A. Posokhova.


Courses taught at the Department:

-       Pharmacology for the students of Medical Faculty (3rd year)

-       Pharmacology for the students of the Faculty Dentistry (2nd and 3rd year)

-       Pharmacology for the students of Pharmaceutical Faculty (3rd  and 4th  year)

-       Pharmacology for the nursing students (AND and BSN)

-       Clinical Pharmacology for the students of Medical Faculty (5th year)


Scientific Interests

The research interests of the Department staff are in the area of hepatology. Particular interests are centered in the following fields:

·                    Investigations of physiology and pathology of liver

·                    Experimental therapy of dystrophic and cholestatic damages of liver by combine administering of hepatoprotective drugs and microsomal enzyme inducers

·                    Studying of the immune activity and effectiveness of hepatotropic drugs in treatment of inflammatory and dystrophic diseases of hepatobiliary system

·                    Studying the role of oxygen homeostasis changes in liver pathology and central haemodynamics and founding out the effective methods of their correction

·                    L-arginine-Nitric oxide system in pathological processes of different origin

·                    Modern methods of prevention of liver toxicity in case of antiretroviral and ant tuberculosis drugs administration

 The molecular mechanisms of bile formation and bile secretion, pathogenesis of liver damage in various pathological statuses are studied. The new methods of liver pathology of different origin are investigated. The various antioxidants, antihypoxants, enterosorbents, selen-containing drugs, vitamins, nitric oxide precursors as hepatoprotectors are introduced into clinical practice.


Selected publications

1. Posokhova K.A., Chernyashova V.V. Kidney in acute experimental peritonitis and its correction by glutargine and recsod // Journal of Pharmacology and Medical Toxicology. 2010;4(17):45-50. (In Ukrainian).

2. Posokhova K.A., Shevtchuk O.O. Correction of antiretroviral drugshepatotoxicity with enterosgel // Study of the effectiveness of enterosgel paste form for oral administration in iatrogenic intoxication anti-TB drugs. Ukr. Journal clin and lab medicine.2010;4(4):95-99 (In Ukrainian).

3. Chernukhina O.O., Posokhova K.A., Datsko T.V. Morphological changes in kidneys at the experimental diabetes and prescription of modulators of system L-arginine-nitric oxide //  Reports of Morphology. 2010;16(3):509-512. (In Ukrainian).   4. Shved M.I., Chernukhina O.O., Posokhova K.A. Influence of precursor and blocker of nitric oxide synthesis in their single and combined administration on kidney state in case of experimental diabetes mellitus // Clinical and Experimental Pathology. 2010;9(33):117-120. (In Ukrainian). 

5. Posokhova K.A., Volska A.S., Demchuk I.A. Influence of thiotriazoline and acethylcysteine on liver injury in acute acetaminophen intoxication // Zaporosian Medical Journal. 2010;12:195-197. (In Ukrainian) 

6. Posokhova K.A., Nikolaev V.G., Shevtchuk O.O. et al. The influence of enterosgel on liver function in case of antiretroviral agents administration //  Reports of Morphology. 2010;16(3):548-55. (In Ukrainian). 

7.  Posokhova K.A., Nikolaev V.G., Klimnjuk S.I., Maljarchuk A.R., Jaremchuk O.Z., Shevchuk O.O., Volska A.S. Influence of enterosorbent enterosgel, xerogel, microcrystalline cellulose and karbolayn on bowel microbiocenosis of experimental animals // Clinical and Experimental Pathology. 2010;9(33):83-86. (In Ukrainian). 

8. Posokhova K.A., Shevtchuk O.O., Prishljak A.M., Mosejchuk I.L. The effectiveness of glutargin and enterosgel in liver injury caused by antituberculosis drugs //  Med. Chem. 2010;312(3):6165. (In Ukrainian).

9. Adverse reactions of antiretroviral drugs / Komar S.V., Posokhova K.A., Viktorov O.P. et al.  // Ukr. Med. Bulletin.2009;2(70):136-144. (In Ukrainian). 

10. Posokhova K.A., Nikolaev V.H., Oleshchuk O.M., Nikolaeva V.V., Kilshch I.MThe study of the specific activity of highly dispersed fiber peel chokeberry in alcoholic hepatitis // Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy. 2007;11:48-51. (In Ukrainian). 

11. Posokhova K.A., Oleshchuk O.M., Kilshch I.M Changes of liver dysfunction for introducing N-nitro-L-arginine and melatonin in acute toxic hepatitis. Med. Chem. 2005;7(1):51–54 (In Ukrainian).

12. Posokhova K.A., Ploskanych L. Y., Oleshchuk O.M., Efficiency of L-arginine in ischemic-reperfusive damaged liver in experiment. Bukovinsky Medical Bulletin. 2004;8(1):138–141. (In Ukrainian). 

13. Skakun M.P., Posokhova K.A. Basic Pharmacology with prescriptions // Text book for nursing department. – Ternopil: Ukrmedkniga, 1999. 508 p. (In Ukrainian). 

14. Pharmacology / Ed. Chekmun I.S. Posokhova K.A. et al. // Text book for graduate students. – Kiev, 2001. 598 p. (In Ukrainian). 

15. Skakun M.P., Posokhova K.A. Basic Pharmacology with prescriptions // Text book for nursing department. 2nd edition. – Ternopil: Ukrmedkniga, 2004. 539 p. (In Ukrainian). 

16. Skakun M.P., Posokhova K.A. Parmacology // Text book for graduate students. Ternopil: Ukrmedkniga, 2003. 740 p. (In Ukrainian). 

17. Pharmacotherapy / Text book for graduate students of pharmaceutical faculty / Ed. Krajdashenko O.V. et al. Posokhova K.A. et al.  – Vinnitca, 2010. 644 p. (In Ukrainian). 

18. Pharmacology / Ed. Chekmun I.S. Posokhova K.A. et al. // Text book for graduate students. – Kiev, 2011. 768 p. (In Ukrainian). 

19. Posokhova K.A., Klimnjuk S.I. Microbiological and pharmacological basis of rational antibiotics administration – Ternopil: Ukrmedkniga, 1998. 131 p. (In Ukrainian). 

20. Posokhova K.A., Viktorov O.P. Antibiotics. Ternopil: Ukrmedkniga, 2005.296 p. (In Ukrainian). 

21. Posokhova K.A., Oleshchuk O.M. Experience practically-oriented education at the Department of Pharmacology. Med. Educ. 2007;3:121 (In Ukrainian).

22. Posokhova K.A., Oleshchuk O.M. Coverage of ethical problems of safe use of medicines in teaching pharmacology at the Medical Faculty of Nursing. Nursing. 2007;3:14-16 (In Ukrainian).

23. Oleshchuk O.M. Polypragmasy and safety of pharmacotherapy. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy. 2010;1:28-34. (In Ukrainian).

24. Oleshchuk O.M., Nikolaeva V.V., Klishch I.M. Study of the effectiveness of enterosgel paste form for oral administration in iatrogenic intoxication anti-TB drugs. Ukr. Journal clin and lab medicine.2010;4(4):95-99 (In Ukrainian).

25. Oleshchuk O.M. Efficacy of precursor synthesis of nitric oxide in acute liver damage. Ukr. Journal clin and lab medicine. 2009;3(4):133–136 (In Ukrainian). 

26. Chernyashova V.V., Hnatuk M.M., Oleshchuk O.M., Kilshch I.M. Study of the effectiveness of using enterosorbent Enterosgel in paste form for
oral application on a model of experimental streptozotocine diabetes. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy 2008;3:33–37 (In Ukrainian). 

27. Oleshchuk O.M., Datsko T.V. Changes in the morpho-functional state of rat liver in acute carbon tetrachloride intoxication and after introduction of L-arginine and Glutargin. The world of medicine and biology. 2007;3:24–27 (In Ukrainian). 

28. Nikolaev V.H., Myhaylovsky S.V., Oleshchuk O.M., Lisnichuk N.Ye  Enterosorption: state of the issue and prospects for the future. Bulletin of the problems of biology and medicine 2007;7:7–16. (In Ukrainian). 

29. Oleshchuk O.M., O. Application of nitric oxide synthesis modulators toxic and cholestatic liver damage in experiments. Med. Chem. 2007;4(9):5154 (In Ukrainian).    

30. Posokhova K.A., Oleshchuk O.M., Kilshch I.M Changes of liver disfunction for introducing N-nitro-L-arginine and melatonin in acute toxic hepatitis. Med. Chem. 2005;7(1):51–54 (In Ukrainian). 

31. Klishch I.M., Korda M.M., Oleshchuk O.M. The effect of hydrazine chloride on the energetic processes in isolated hepatocytes. Med. Chem. 2002;4(3):57-59 (In Ukrainian).

32. L. Ya. Kovalchuk, N.Ye. Lisnychuk, I.Ye. Sakharova, O.M. Oleshchuk. The internal standarts assurance of the educational process in the Ternopil State Medical University . 14th Grazer Conference “New  Vienna Medical University, 2010.-Horizons in Teaching and Learning”.  (In English).

33. L. Kovalchuk, O. Oleshchuk, N. Lisnychuk, I. Sakharova Results of new curriculum implementation. Graz conference Teaching Medicine – an interprofessional Aproach Innsbruch, Austria 24-26 September 2009 (In English).

34. L. Kovalchuk, I. Mysula, N. Lisnychuk, O. Oleshchuk et al. Doctor (Student) – Patient models of Communication. Ternopil,Ukrmedknyha,2009.,39 p. (In English).

35. L. Kovalchuk, O. Oleshchuk, L. Sokolova Ukraine: implementation of New Educational Techniques in Pharmacy Curiculum II Conference Colloquium Pharmaceutiucal Poznan, Poland,2008, 38-42.

36. Posokhova K.A., Oleshchuk O.M. Experience practically-oriented education at the Department of Pharmacology. Med. Educ. 2007;3:121 (In Ukrainian).

37. L. Kovalchuk, O. Oleshchuk, N. Lisnychuk, I. Sakharova Medical Education in Ukraine: Reality and motion to European Higher Educational space. 10. Grazer onferenz “Curriculum development as an ongoing process” Tagungsort Wien, Austira 11-13 Mai 2006 (In English).

38. Skakun M.P., Oleshchuk O.M. Evidence-based medicine Ternopil,Ukrmedknyha,2005.,71 p. (In English).


History of the Department

The Department of Pharmacology was established in summer 1957.  On September 1, 1957 an introductory lecture in pharmacology was delivered and the first lessons were conducted. The Department was headed by Associate Professor Mykola Skakun, MD, PhD. Ivan Pasichnyk, Oleksiy Kucheruk and Mykola Byvshuk took the positions as Assistant Professors and in 1958 they defended their dissertations and obtained PhD degree.

Mykola Skakun during the experiment (Lviv, 1956)

These first lectures were active participants in the WWII. Mykola Skakun participated in the guerrilla movement in Leningrad region. For courage and bravery he was awarded the medal “Guerrilla Warrior in Patriotic War” of the first degree, then order of “Patriotic War” of the second degree”, and 12 medals. In future, all of them became Doctors of Medicine and professors. Mykola Skakun successfully defended his doctoral thesis on "The Fundamentals of bile secretion process" in 1961. Ivan Pasichnyk defended his doctoral thesis in 1969. Oleksiy Kucheruk in 1974. Mukola  Skakyn remained the Head of the Department of Pharmacology at Ternopil Medical Institute until 1991. Ivan Pasichnyk headed the Department of Pharmacology at Luhansk  Medical Institute, and Oleksiy Kucheruk headed the Department of Anatomy and Physiology at Kamyanets-Podilsk Pedagogical Institute.

Mykola Skakun with the students during practice. 1957

In the 1960’s Associate Professor M. Byvshuk, Assistant Professor A. Oliynyk, M. Harbarets, and V. Vlasov worked at the Department. S. Dorohovoz and N. Bezkorovaina. M. Zaichenko and I. Lesyuk worked at the Department as the senior laboratory assistants. I. Lesyuk in 1970 defended her PhD thesis. In 1969, post-graduate student S. Drohovoz successfully defended her PhD thesis in pharmacology and continued her research. Woman with great intellectual potential, academic power and high performance, doctor Svitlana Drohovoz, after two years of intensive work completely finished her experimental part of the doctoral dissertation. In 1971 S. Drohovoz took position of the Head of the Pharmacology Department at Kharkiv State National Pharmaceutical University.

In the 1970’s L. Omelyanyuk (Smolyar) became a senior laboratory assistant of the Department. All who knew her could say that she always remained a cheerful and hardworking woman who was always ready to help her colleagues in their intense scientific work.

Alla Oliynyk in 1962 became the first post-graduate student of the Department. Along with Prof. Skakun they facilitated the establishment of traditions of mutual respect and mutual aid among the stuff of the Department. All scientific researchers of the Department remember Alla Oliynyk as highly erudite, cheerful, always willing to help others, and a witty person who willingly offer unconventional solutions. In 1965 A.Oliynyk successfully defended PhD and in 1985 doctoral dissertations. In 1988 she received the title of Professor of the Pharmacology Department, and headed the Clinical Pharmacology course. In 2001 she started to work at the Faculty of Nursing.

The first post-graduate student A. Oliynyk

Nadia Mulyarchuk (Bezkorovaina) worked at the Department since 1968, at first as a post-graduate student. In 1971 she defended her PhD dissertation, and then went on to assume the post of Assistant Professor. In 1992 she became Associate Professor. For many years N. Mulyarchuk was the person responsible for the materials of the Department. From 2001 till her retirement she taught at the Faculty of Nursing and at the Department of Pharmacology.

In 1975 Katheryna Posokhova joined the Department as a senior laboratory assistant. In 1980 she became a post-graduate student. In 1982 K. Posokhova successfully defended her dissertation and began working as an Assistant Professor. In 1986 she became Associate Professor, and then in 1991 the Head of the Department. In 1996 K.Posokhova defended her doctoral dissertation and in 1997 received the title of Professor.

In the 1990’s under the guidance of Prof. M. Skakun, senior laboratory assistants A. Tabachuk and doctors N. Bahan, B. Onysko, J. Slyvka, A. Temchenko, N. Kovalchuk, V. Knyazevych, L. Bilyk wrote and successfully defended their dissertations.

In 1982 the post of senior laboratory assistant of the Department was given to Volodymyr Shmanko. Under the direction of Prof. M. Skakun he worked on his PhD thesis which he successfully defended in 1986.  In 1996 V. Shmanko successfully defended his doctoral dissertation. Since 1999  Prof. V. Shmanko has been working as the Head the Course of Clinical Pharmacology.

In 1998 I. M. Klishch started working at the Department. Previously, he was working as an Assistant Professor at the Department of Medical Chemistry. Ivan Mykolayovych earned love and respect of all the staff during his five-year work at the Department.

From left to right: O. Oleshchuk, I. Klishch, O. Yaremchuk, V. Samohalskyy, A. Shevchuk, M. Lemke, K. Posokhova, O. Havryschak, N. Mulyarchuk, V. Chernyashova

Over the years many bright personalities worked at the Department. Among them are Ludmyla Porokhnyak, who defended her PhD dissertation in 1975 while she was working as an Assistant Professor. In 1983 she started to work at Kharkiv Pharmaceutical Academy, and then worked in Kyiv, where she defended her doctoral dissertation and was awarded the title of Professor. For a long time she headed the Laboratory of Endocrinology at Kyiv Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and was awarded the Order of Knyahynya Olha.  Yaroslav Nesterovych, a pedantic researcher and gifted teacher, was working at the Department and completed his PhD dissertation during 1975-1982. In 1982 Yaroslav Nestorovych joined as an Assistant, and then became Associate Professor of the Department of Psychiatry. Olena Klymnyuk, a highly intelligent and artistically gifted person, began her work as a post-graduate student, then as an Assistant Professor in 1990-1998. Now she is the Head of the Department of Post Marketing Surveillance of the State Expert Centre Ministry of Health of Ukraine.

In the 1980’s a lot of young workers came to the Department. V.Shmanko, I.Moseychuk, O.Klymnyuk, I.Vysotskyy, S.Kovalchuk, O.Tabachuk were working at the laboratory during this period of time.

From left to right: K. Posokhova, A. Oliynyk, M. Skakun, N. Mulyarchuk, J. Vysotsky, Stand: V. Shmanko, O. Tabachuk, I. Moseychuk, L.Nevska, N. Kovalchuk, I. Herasymovych, S. Kovalchuk. 1986.

Every year at the Department at least one candidate dissertation is defended. The senior  laboratory assistant Nelya Kovalchuk completed and successfully defended her PhD dissertation under the supervision of Prof. M. Skakun and obtained a job as a lecturer at Ternopil Pedagogical University. All members of the young team successfully defended their PhD dissertations.

Iryna Moseychuk successfully defended her PhD dissertation and took position of an Assistant Professor of Pharmacology Department in 1988. From 1993 she worked as a senior lecturer, and later as an Associate Professor of the Department.

Oksana Davydovych defended her PhD dissertation in 1984. She worked as an Assistant Professor of Clinical Pharmacology Course. Svitlana Marchyshyn, defended her PhD dissertation in 1983, and doctorate dissertation in 2007.  She worked as an Assistant at the Department, and then became the Head of the Course of Botany at Ternopil Pedagogical University. Now Prof. S. Marchyshyn is the Head of the Department of Pharmacognosy with Medical Botany at TSMU.

N. Bohuslavets, O. Havryshchak left behind good memories even though working at the Department for a short period of time.

Mariya Lemke worked at the Department for 5 years. She was always willing to help her colleagues.

From 1995 to 1998 a post-graduate student, Oleksandra Oleshchuk, under the supervision of Prof. K.Posokhova successfully defended her PhD dissertation, while working as an Assistant Professor.  Now she is an Associate Professor, currently working on her doctoral dissertation. 

From left to right: O.Oleshchuk, O.Pryymak, O.Pomeranian, O.Grytsiv, M.Lemke, I.Moseychuk, 2005

In the late 90's and early new century I. Berezhna, V. Bukovska (Nikolaeva), O. Hrytsiv, under the supervision of Prof. K.Posokhova successfully defended their candidate dissertations. Later, they moved to Kyiv, where they continue their scientific and social activities. T. Lyebyedyeva, L. Ploskanych, V. Chernyashova, A. Yaremchuk, O. Shevchuk, N. Zozulyak, I. Stechyshyn did their researches under the supervision of Prof. K.Posokhova. Some of them have already defended their PhD dissertations.

From left to right: O.Havryshchak, K.Posokhova, V.Chernyashova, O.Shevchuk, O.Yaremchuk during preclinical studies in the laboratory of studies of medical agents

In 1992-1998 the senior laboratory assistant of the Department was Alla Mudra. Now she has PhD degree and works as Assistant Professor at the Department of Medical Chemistry at TSMU.

We can never forget the laboratory assistants who worked at our Department.  Their tireless activity helped the formation of the Department and was a part of its good work and high achievements. They are: D. Muynyk, D. Kynshyna, A. Pavlova, L. Fryz, L. Synyutka, L. Poliova, I. Herasymovych, J. Dyb'yak, L. Havlych, O. Havro, O. Lesitska, L. Neva, O. Pryymak, O. Yaremchuk, M. Koval.

Researchers of the Pharmacology Department are working on many problems of modern pharmacology, but the most concentrated efforts are on the scientific development of current problems of experimental and clinical hepatology. These efforts gave start to the internationally well-known academic school called Ternopil School of Pharmacology and Hepatology.

Our instructors work with a lot of gifted students. Among the most active students it is necessary to remember I. Chekman, who was the Head of the students’ scientific club at the Department in 1957-1959. Now he is a member of National Academy of Sciences and NAMS of Ukraine. He is also a Professor and Head of the Pharmacology Department of Kyiv National Medical University. S. Drohovoz was a member of the students’ scientific club. Nowadays she is a Professor and Head of the Pharmacology Department at National University of Pharmacy. N. Bahan (Stepanova) over the years of work at the students’ scientific club has completely finished all experiments and obtained all the materials required for her PhD dissertation, and later successfully defended it.

Since the establishment of the Department 10 Doctors of Sciences and 43 Philosophy Doctors have been trained.  The scientist and lecturers who worked at the Department published 7 textbooks, 12 manuals, 3 reference books, 7 methodical instructions, 415 articles and over 800 of other publications.



At all Faculties classes are conducted in three languages ​​- Ukrainian, Russian and English. 7 teachers are certified by the Department for the right to teach in English. The Department staff is constantly working to improve teaching skills. The students are trained according to the “Single day” educational technique and practically-oriented learning. "Z-system" of teaching involves the simultaneous study of theoretical and practical subjects to shift emphasis from theory to practice. To ensure the high level of practical training elements of practically-oriented learning system are included into the teaching process at the Department.

To modernize the teaching process video systems are used during the practical classes and lectures. Each lecture is illustrated with the video in pharmacology.

To enhance the practical skills of students we use the lines of practical skills - matriculae that contribute to the improvement of skills of writing prescriptions for different dosage forms.

For the foreign students manual in medical prescriptions is issued. Students of all the Faculties can use another manual ("Dosage forms") issued at the Department. Electronic versions of both books are presented on the Web page of the Department.



The field of research of the Department is studying the cholagogic drugs, hepatoprotectors, drugs with antioxidant properties, identification of mechanisms  of hepatotoxic action of xenobiotics, development of the ways of improvement of pharmacoprophylaxis and pharmacotherapy of toxic liver affection, finding out the pathogenesis of hypoxic conditions of different aetiology and effective means to correct malfunctions at these conditions, establishing the role of nitric oxide system in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic hypoxia, affection of myocardium, ischemia-reperfusion of liver, diabetes mellitus, acute and chronic toxic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, cholestatic lesions of this organ, multiple organ failure at acute pancreatitis and acute peritonitis, evidence of the efficiency of enterosorption at liver damage with anti-TB and antiretroviral drugs, including their combined use, the establishment of peculiarities of hepatocyte microsomal enzyme system functioning at liver damage with xenobiotics, including drugs.

The Department organized the Second Congress of Pharmacology and 7 scientific conferences.


Clinical work

From 1998 the clinical basis of the Clinical Pharmacology Course is Ternopil municipal hospital ¹ 3. Since 2007 the Course is headed by Prof. Shmanko V. V.

Instructors of the Course pay much attention to clinical work. They consult patients at the polyclinic, consult and supervise patients of rehabilitation unit for the patients with neurological diseases, therapeutic and orthopedic units of the hospital participate in clinical rounds, consultation and clinical pathological conferences, review case histories. The primary area was the implementation of research results in practical medicine, which include:

A. Use of the drug "Strezam" for the patients with somatopsychic disorders of various origins.

2. Method of rise of treatment efficiency of the patients with chronic articular syndrome with Moveks”.

3. Method of improving of treatment efficiency by the drugPulmolor” in patients with respiratory diseases.